«conduct Chronicles» -21

 

«Chronicles» -21

famine realities

 

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today, 31 MAY— Day of Remembrance of the victims of political repressions and famine on the occasion, Part of the title history of this site informative context of the last century in Kazakh place received the famine, On their causes and consequences source articles and a series of videos I am publishing. get to know, Know:

 

famine

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

famine - socio-political processes in nature and is the result of a favorable climate social disaster.There are open and closed. The first one Stay totally uneconomical, the second - constantly walking premature abdominal. Both disease, epidemic, leads to death (city. starve). famine individual or family is not starvation, the whole region, the nations, States from the beginning of fate. He brought the end to the mass death of people, population will dramatically reduce the number of. During its long history mankind for various reasons,: drought, juttan, war, hand-made crises and shocks, and after the genocide are often faced with the strong Aşarşılıqtarğa. China, India, Russia, African countries a great famine, known to history. land After tremors in the number of mankind on demographics, 21 century economy, especially, agriculture is assumed to be behind the rest of the location of the food shortages in some developing countries. however, the interaction of the civilized countries in the future. As a result of solidarity, where the risk can be prevented.[1]

 

hungry people

 

The monument erected in honor of victims of the famine

 

The famine in Kazakhstan

full article: 1921—1922 famine in

nomadic Kazakh congregation not only in strong jute, In its long history famine were rare. Just as a "national disaster" in agressive wars, reduced the number of special. new times Kazakhstan two in the history of the terrible famine population stored in the memory, hard.

The first of them — 1921/22 Its two main reasons of the famine in: first - Russia Because of the civil war Kazakh the susceptibility of the farms in the vast steppes of stress (city. Food groups, Food salğırtı), the second natural disaster, adverse weather caused by famine. the republic 1920 and 1923 and agricultural censuses conducted in Kazakhstan According to the land size of the expedition, led by Professor S.P.Şvecovtıñ 1921 of famine Kazakhstan People reduced by up to 30%. Some of the settlements fate covers 100% of the population, the expulsion of almost all of them, Along the way, Some of motherland, were killed. census materials 1921 — 1922 economic year in the West Kazakhstan Peasant farms 1920 compared to 23,8 % reduced, Aktobe, Turgay shows one-third of the farms in the areas to be destroyed. 1921 Famine West Kazakhstan the people of 31,4 took percent. During the years of the famine in the complete absence of census materials is impossible to say how many dead person is still.

The second famine 1930 — 33 was in. The reason for that is - Kazakhstan Reform of the Stalin-Goloschekin, Then remove the confiscation of the property of the peasants and, weigh us meat, grain, etc.. agricultural products taxes, nomadic and semi-nomadic Kazakh is a massive and violent farmers settling campaigns. 1926, 1937 and 1939 Counts materials gaps over this man Aşarşılıqtağı, and interfering with other costs to determine the exact number of, due to the spread of different opinions among scientists. however, this hunger Kazakhstan On the decrease of the rural population Kazakh AKSR population a variety of indirect statistical report of the department of documents (tax report, Calculation of livestock, etc.), as well as 1937 of the Union population According to the first official census data. According to this data Kazakhstan the rural population 1930 year 1 June 1933 year 1 to season 3 million. 379,5 thousands of people have decreased. If the decrease 1 If we remove more than a million refugees, 1930 — 33 famine victims 2 million. 200 thousands of people will exceed the Valley. 1992 In the study of this special issue Kazakhstan At the end of the commission of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic wrote: "Kazakh Eli hunger and related illnesses, as well as due to natural mortality is always high 2 million. 200 thousands of people, that is all Kazakh the people of 48 per cent of the lost”. hunger Kazakhstan There was only one third of the Kazakhs. Mostly young children and women qırılğandıqtan demogr. It was a tough consequences. Strongly inhibit the growth of a number of Kazakhs. Subsequently, the true value of political bürkemelengenimen exaggerations This famine "red Kyrgyz", Goloschekin genocide "historical" horse won the. Goloschekin genocide Kazakh Any loss in the history of the world to the people (percent with a score of) hytlershilderdiң Europe soyqanımen comparable to the Jews, Kampwçïyadağı exceed the effects of the "red" kxmerler. 1932 was in monkeys In those early 20th century, it is one of the most serious of crimes against humanity. each year 31 On May Kazakhstan People will be able to "red" in memory of the victims of genocide. [2][3][4]

 

 

 

1930—1932 the consequences of the famine years

 

 

 

 

famine 3

 

 

A new approach to the reality of famine

Qazaqstan portal tarihy, 23 August 2013 year

https://e-history.kz/kz/contents/view/925
© e-history.kz

Soviet power in the data published in the first years of independence 1920- 1930-During the years of Kazakhs 4-4,5 million. lost man. 1921—1922-During the famine years 1 million. 700 thousands of people (Chairman of the Commission to assist the hungry Mukhtar Auezov According to the), 1932—1933-years 2 million. 300 About a thousand people who died. Recent data, "The number of the dead in 1920s famine 2,3 million. and achievements of the people ", Kazakh demographer Makash Tätimovtiñ data "Twentieth-century civil war, hand-made famine, repressions while, The end of the World War II 3 million 850 suffering a thousand Kazakh massacre " tells. Kazakh history "Great famine" (English. «Great Famine») the rest of the name 1920-30 zh.zh. does not require proof of the seriousness of the economic and demographic consequences of the famine. According to the Kazakh intellectuals at that time, famine disaster Mangystau covers almost all the Kazakh steppe to the Altai. During these years, the traditional livestock was heartbroken, Kazakhs who have lost their only source of livelihood are permanently under threat of extinction. Forced collectivization campaign conducted in the Soviet Union are not passed around the country Kazakh. At the mass confiscation of things ensnared, Kazakh wealthy, rich and have come to the descendants of holding the reins of power in the khans.

 

"Jute - Seven Brothers"

The most adverse weather conditions, in particular, drought, Pressing the blue ice of land, etc.. As a result of the economic shock of the ancient Kazakhs jute afraid that. Kazakh `s "Jute - seven of eight brothers sodırmen, salaqpen nine, olaқpen it " The words are coming tomorrow. 19 century Kazakh steppe 20 registered the largest jute. there, such periodic survived juttan Kazakh, After the Bolsheviks came to power, it could not cope with. The main reason, the worker and peasant union would be based on the establishment of the proletariat dïktatwrasınıñ. This coup was originally "the world empire of Russia in accordance with the theory of" socialism "experiment" as Twain. 1917 of permanent revolution, including the "socialist revolution", "Tips" about Lenin: "The interim government, In the government of the bourgeoisie still weak, new coming into the fetus ... was the second government - the Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies Sovetteri. This is what is the nature of the government's political? This is a revolutionary dictatorship, that is not central to the law issued by the state government, ... According to the initiative directly below the public authorities"Wrote. However, Is this a government that foreign central regions, such as Turkestan According to Mustafa Shokai In, "... over the dead carcasses of the men, women and children ... there was sacrifice". The victory of the Bolsheviks in the struggle for power, or the name of the "socialist revolution" became possible only after the civil war -. Soviet power 1920 starting in personal power 1930 years of totalitarianism (lat. totalis - whole, entirely) system caused. "Totalitarianism reigns all sectors of public life in the country is under the control of the authorities, human freedom and constitutional rights will be removed, The representatives of the opposition and other political thoughts are subjected to political persecution. Its historical patterns of Stalin in the USSR, Mao Zedong in China, In North Korea, Kim Il-sung regime, as well as in Germany and fascist Italy B.Mwssolïnï. Established during the reign of HitlerEncyclopedia "/" Kazakhstan ", 2006. – 704 b. -V.8.— B.458 /.

The establishment of totalitarianism in the USSR 1920-30 zh.zh. the rich and the face with his fist as the elimination of the measures and carried out the policy of forced collectivization of agriculture. As a result, the Kazakh people suffered a terrible famine, experienced mass bosqınşılıqtı. Soviet totalitarianism intellectuals dedicated to the principles of national political "class enemies", Pikirdegiler "unacceptable" and persecuted as "socially dangerous elements". A.Baitursynov, A.Bukeykhanov, M.Zhumabayev, Zh.Aimauytov, Ä.Baydildïn, D.Äbilov, M.Tynyshbaev, T., etc.. Lions of Alash has been the victim of totalitarianism. The head of the Kazakh region F.Ï.Goloşçekïn (1925—1933) populated accelerated industrialization and collectivization policy. Ï.Stalïnniñ 1928 warm 15 January - 6 During the visit to Siberia between February (Novosibirsk, Barnaul, Biisk, Rubzovka, Krasnoyarsk, Omsk), Krasnoyarsk to the "East" was the cause of the Board. The first people to stay in the country's grain crisis of the USSR, "if 1927 January 428 million. If deployed pounds of prepared cereals, but 1928 grain prepared in January 300 million. idol barely reached, this failure 128 million. pounds was» /Омарбеков.Т. 20-30 Kazakhstan in tragedy: Almaty: category, 1997. – 320 b. - B. 41/ noted. Hearing these words, the training of local grain "couriers" "Abuse of the links" allowed. As a result, the Kazakh traditional livestock küyzeldi, According to the Kazakh intellectuals, at that time 40,5 million. -give small bass 4,5 Known million decline. Moreover emigrate and hunger due to bad weather population 24 percent of, that is, every fourth man who killed. thus, Bolshevik plan is based on the grounds of economy, has to catch up with the development of industry and agriculture. but, Kazakh steppes "folder held a sawn-off increased active", blue sky "Whatever excess, Do not open the hoof " went to slogans. Kingdom authorities inherited colonial policy of Soviet power in other nations, How many people liman tears, "Artificial" helped cause trouble. quite, Kazakh border in China, Russia; Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Had gone over to countries such as Iran and Turkey. In those years, the country foot tiremegen few Kazakh family.

1928—1932 zh.zh. Kazakh during the first five years of the rich confiscation policy came into force, against the Soviet government "Socially dangerous elements" the search for, followed by the transfer of their land küş¬tep. especially, Kazakh rich, In modern language persecuted sponsor of Kazakh. For example, ZHETISU famous large family of wealthy family Specialist 1720 cattle, 13 white house, 13 wooden house confiscated. This was recognized in the creation of useful members of the dynasty Kazakhs, for example, understand the value of science and education Esenқұl Mamanova declared the best person to write a novel jumps; Shakarim Semipalatinsk district Kunanbay descendant of Abai, Turagul known prosecuted. Then just Turagul 36 livestock was confiscated. The founder of the Semipalatinsk meat and leather industry, 1918 In M. who was sponsoring the financial request, issue of the journal "Abai", One of the richest people in the largest Kazakh Karajanbas Ukibayev The property confiscated and locks. West is one of the richest people in the region, A great-grandson of raw Datov Umarov confiscation of wealth tax, self-exile in Semirechye. He global Dosmukhamedov financial aid to a study in St. Petersburg, Alash army 200 The person who filed the horse. Similarly, Turagul as Ibragimov he was Halel policy, He was exiled to Siberia with Moldabaevpen. because, 1932 Oraz Isayev emphasized in his letter addressed to Stalin in: "... in many parts of the rich must admit a certain success. This 1930—1931 Altai Mangystau significantly large counterrevolutionary rich in general is evident in receipt of promotions to organize a special " /Kazakh How was starving?. Almaty, 1991. – 206 b. – 26 b. /.

National representatives of the intelligentsia, Although rich in material rotted, spiritually very rich people considered dangerous to society as a, they are included in a group of second confiscation of collectivization campaign. thus, 1930 as the encounter began in the rich eradication of, 1918-20 years of political repression and rehabilitated a further catalyst to start.

Persons involved in the seizure of 3 would be divided into categories: The first one concentration camps closed; the second exiled to remote areas; the third collective farms resettled outside. Attracted representatives of other nationalities, suffering mass confiscation. Kazakh steppes "burning fire" famine of the outstanding Kazakh intellectuals T. Ryskulov, Smagul Saduakasov, Nygmet Nurmakov, Oraz Isaev, Sultan leather, etc.. Moscow has prepared official letters. BK (b) P Secretary General of the GDP of the Central Committee of Stalin and Kazakh ölkelik first secretary of the Party Committee of F.Ï. Goloschekin letters addressed to the T. "Stalin", Ğ.Müsirepov, M.Ғataulyn, M.Däwletqalïev, E.Altınbekov, Q.Qwanışev wrote a letter "Besewdiñ" etc.. Kazakh letters "black fly" the reasons for the extinction of the realization of foreign and üdere, economic and demographic data indicative of the actual costs berildi. At the same time official data 1933 in Kazakhstan 104 district 206 thousands of people were in need of food aid. However, not the central organization of regular assistance to the famine-prone areas, she did not have any compassion. The same official letter 1918—1922 gg. continuously recorded during the current famine. "Obraşçenïe kirghis Lenïnw" / VI / letter called letter of Kazakhs, Kazakh delegation will take center, in the Caucasus Mustafa Shokai delivered, soon, The text of the letter that the newspaper "Football" / Tbilisi, 1921/ published explanations. The document has attained the people "to eat dog meat", No medical assistance to them being dictated by the Kazakh society of negative thinking, The lack of mutual understanding between the Center and representatives of the local population, party, The majority of employees of the Council will touch on the colonial spirit wlanğandığı. /K.Esmaғambetov. Kazakhs M.Şoqay named "On the face famine, №2 (29), 2011. 107-114 bb /..

but, 1932—1933 zh.zh. It would have even greater consequences of famine. This is not a dog, Eating a person occurred Facts. At the same time Tleubek Kolbaeva "the nation's intellectuals published an article at the time of the famine" Zhansugurov "Jute decided to bring seven brothers" can be found in:

 

When the bream disaster,

Therefore, having a cup of identity thief?

Central line and received treatment kïligip,

The beak is qazağıñnıñ tujırıldı.

Aytpayıқ, Ural Internal Horde me,

Semeydi, Akmola friend.

The breakdown of the countries, Dark soil dust lands,

Freeze, have mercy on, beginning, brain ".

However, Kazakh did not have to listen to hear the groaning of different genres and trained, was listening. What is the end of its completion, known. Thus far, the campaign of collectivization, and have written very little about the hunger to build. 1929 in Kazakh—1931 years 80 including thousands of people 372 uprising of peasants destroyed. OGPU (United State Political Board) According to the, 1930 In January-April in the USSR 1,8 million. includes people 6 when thousands of peasants uprising. In particular Kazakh steppes major insurrections: Suzak, Irgiz, Karakum, Karakalpak (owned rebellion Taqtaköpir), Aday, Abyraly, Shyngystau, Batpakkara (Turgay Khan Abdigappar), Balkhash, Zhetisu, Sarkand, Kordai. Hoover found in the archive 6-6,5 "surface" of the Ottoman warrior uprising (BA may be an alias name) The author of the document is unknown, Fund from the mountain pass Ottoman warrior real name Badri Mïnafarar Karim. it 1914 He graduated from the institute in Istanbul. 1917 a member of the Mukhtariat in, 1922 Records included in Türkïslamxwkwmat ". / Burkitt Ayagan. Red and black (materials Hoover Archives). - Almaty, 2005. – 240 from. - S.82-89 /. Anyway, evidence of such facts led the government in the revolt of the peasants influential people.

Western experts say?

1920—1930 collectivization and famine during the first known foreign seen published works. Among them, a British historian Robert Konkvestiң 1986 published in «Zhatva starches: Soviet collectivization and terror famine " (English. Robert Conquest. The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivisation and the Terror-Famine) special labor. R.Konkvest "The famine in Kazakhstan was made, In other words, 1921 on way to match, purely ideological pressure, was conceived as a result of the policy of collectivization. but, Ukraine can not be compared to deliberately organized the famine in Kazakhstan. because, Actions of Soviet power in all spheres of society, interrelated: confiscate the ears, collectivization and artificial famine in rural areas " concludes that.

however, Western historiography of the Soviet collectivization earlier wrote to the authors: 1934 in W.X.Çamberlen (Chamberlin, William Henry), 1936 Amanda Ewald in (breastfeeding, Ewald), 1964 Dalrïmpl in Dana (Dalrymple, Dana) was. but, Robert Conquest (Robert Conquest) this topic 1968 Since attacks. General, Western scientists' interest in this issue has increased from 80 years of the twentieth century. At the same time a lot of data "political repression in the USSR" and "artificial famine", Is displayed as a "genocide". According to a number of Western researchers "Stalin's policy Kazakh, Ukrainian and other nations to ethnic groups, To delete the same as willful " is that. "Ïnostrannıx del Ministry and the authors of the book" Golod Marco Karïnnık, YU. Lubomir and playground and Bogdan C.. Kordan (Marco Carynnyk, Lubomyr Y. Luciuk; Bohdan S. Kordan) Russia, Western Siberia, Kazakhstan and off the coast of the Volga and growing food shortages, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the United Kingdom (SEVEN) has a wide range of documents from the archive collection. The representative of the Empire Marketing Board, Canadian expert on agriculture, and observer Andrew Cairns (E.Carns) high-value calculation. it 1932 In spring and summer the Soviet Union's Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, Volga, Ukraine, Visiting the Crimea and the North Caucasus, such as grain areas. In spite of some weather data, "Made full use of hunger as a result of the Soviet agricultural policy demonstrates". American expert Martha Brill Olcott (Martha Brill Olcott) Kazakhstan work on "collectivization": "The biggest problem for keñestanwşı, 1930-the correct interpretation and understanding of the events of " Please note that. Ukrainians, Kazakhs, Stalin's agricultural policy will be considered as genocide, because the purpose of collectivization Ukrainians, Russians and Kazakhs to their expulsion from the camp through the universe, and new farming, was the type of collective organization. however, author of the study, the policy of collectivization in Kazakhstan, ethnic groups in the Soviet Union that aims to eliminate equal to any other areas of the documents will never celebrate after the first ". 1997 zhyly "Black Book of Communism: crimes, terror, repressïï "the first fundamental reference edition was published in. S.Kurtua, n. Werth, F-L Virgo, BUT. Pachkovskiй, K.Bartoshek, A-L Margolen international team of historians such as, 1932—1933 For a deeper understanding of the years of famine, the analysis of the economic relations between the state and the peasants "". Two years, the number of cattle in the republic 80 the percentage of destruction, loss of possessions 2 million. Kazakhs subjected to famine, had become refugees outside the country, Almost a million Central Asia, reported on the thousands of people who had fled to China. social historian, keñestanwşı, University of Chicago Professor Sheila Fitzpatrick (Sheila Fitzpatrick) "Everyday Stalinism. Social History of Soviet Russia in the 30s: City work ": "Famine was a temporary phenomenon, and a shortage of food and consumer goods, it was not. Increased confidence in the riches of socialism Marksşilder keneltetinine, but socialism in the Soviet power and raises the deficit was inseparable ". Nicolas Werth (Nicolas Werth) "Dispossession of kulaks as mass violence" atta maқalasynda "A large part of the Soviet Union cut off from the economic backwardness of the peasants and their policy - to be the weak link of the Soviet power" shows. "Years of famine: Soviet agriculture in 1931—1933yrs. "The authors of the book R.W.Dévïs and S.G.Wïtkroft (R.W.Davies and Stephen G.Wheatcroft) 1930 political events on the basis of documentary evidence and memories during the Soviet Union's agricultural policy harvest from the vaccination series 1931 from the planning stage to try to show. Many Western researchers IV. Stalin "The policy of collectivization carried out deliberately against the Ukrainians and other national groups" concludes that. The decision of the US Congress on this issue after the formation of a special commission to study the facts of the famine in Ukraine formed a new approach. The results of this group, headed by the commission's executive director James Mays: this tragedy "Will remain until the end of the" artificial famine and «1932—1933 Stalin and his environment in the organized genocide against Ukrainians"I would like to. Professor of history at the University of Melbourne in Australia S.Wïtkrofttıñ (Stephen G.Wheatcroft) "The Soviet famine 1931-33: political intentions or economic disaster?"The work of the Center for European and Eurasian studies support the hunger is new information about the tragedy of the Soviet derevnyalardağı. Although the causes of famine, ecological disaster, Comparative studies of the causes of the famine in the world, The author says, Many of hunger is not lack of food, balance disorders associated with problems arising from the market. his perspective, Soviet famine, it does not include any of the. S.Uitkrofttің "Soviet statistics on food and mortality during the famine in 1917—1922 and 1931,—1933yrs. "The work of the state to provide statistical information and established for the purpose of implementation of the socio-economic plan, State sta¬tïstïkalıq characteristic feature of the system considered. However, planning process is the excessive actions of politicians destroyed, but it schedulers and census-takers or creation was not a manifestation of incompetence. According to the archive, enumerators political leaders of the Soviet state came over several times trying to get to the truth, According to the author "for 1922, some nutrition indicators in rural areas, 1933 concludes that "low in. Famine and collectivization campaign against näwbetine Niccolo Pïançïolo (Nicollo Pianciola) "Hunger in the desert. (The collectivization of agriculture and Kazakh farmers)», Frenchman tarihshysy Isabelle Ogayonnyң "sedentarization Kazakh Soviet Union under Stalin. Collectivization and social changes (1928—1945 GG)», N.M.Neymarktың (Norman M. Naimark) "Stalin's Genocides", Sheila Fitzpatrick (Sheila Fitzpatrick) - "Stalin's peasants: social history of Soviet Russia in the 30s: village", dana Dalrimpldíң (On G.Dalrymple) "The Soviet famine in 1932—1934 godov research papers and articles have been ". D.Dalrimpl Unlike other regions of the Soviet Union, People of Kazakh people had suffered irreparable losses Promotes. 1932-34 the extent of famine in, The duration of the periodic, in terms of intensity and cause-and-effect, All the world believes was the most serious famine. Millions of people died as a result of the famine. 20-Information about various types of data, The average human loss report 5,5 million. -was.

Stalin era (1924—1953 JJ) About the history of collectivization and famine in Kazakhstan Western analysis of historical research, came to the following conclusions thoughts:

1. Fundamental research on the basis of the existing historical research is the first foreign 1980 published in the mid;

2. Actual problems of foreign literature in the history of the USSR, particularly during forced collectivization (1928—1932 JJ) peasants subjected to massive pressure, 1937—1938 during the "Great Terror", Provides objective results in the history of the famine in Ukraine and Kazakhstan;

3. 1920—1930 zh.zh. näwbeti famine and political repression in the Soviet authorities for a comprehensive analysis of the ratio of foreign-historical research is necessary to expand the range of the source.

Finally this year by the Institute of History of the State 1932 the fate of 80 "reality" to mark the anniversary of the famine of 1932-33 (The truth about the famine in 1932-33 years) the so-called scientific community in two languages (Kazakh, Russian) published book.

Information provided by the Institute of History of the State of SC MES.

 

 

 

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